Hierarchical And Non-Hierarchical Algorithm Clustering: 21st Century Skill Grouping In State Vocational Schools Students

Rahadyan Tajuddien, Wahyu Nurul Faroh


Vocational High Schools (SMK), which initially aimed to produce ready-to-work graduates, is the biggest contributor to unemployment. Efforts to overcome this, SMK graduates need to be given 21st century skills to increase agility to survive in the current industrial 4.0 era. 21st century skills are described as: life and career skills, learning and innovation skills and information media and technology skills.

This study conducted a sample grouping of the data from 10,737 students of State Vocational High Schools in Bogor Regency who took advantage of the data mining process using clustering techniques. The method in this study uses the Cross-School Standard Process for Data Mining (CSISP-DM). While the algorithms used for cluster determination are hierarchical and non-heirarchic (K-Means) algorithms. Hierarchical algorithm is a method that does not determine the number of clusters, so that the result or output of a dendogram with a certain number of clusters is determined by the distance until only 2 clusters are formed. K-Means is a non-hierarchical clustering data method that can group student data into several clusters based on the similarity of these data, so that student data with the same characteristics are grouped into one cluster and those with different characteristics are grouped into other clusters. SPSS 25 is used to help find accurate values. The attributes used are life and career skills, learning and innovation skills and information media and technology skills.

The results showed that life and career skills had a frequency of 4,130 students or 38%, learning and innovation skills had a frequency of 4,977 students or 46% and information media and technology skills had a frequency of 3,796 students or 35%. Meanwhile, 21st century skills at 11 SMKN in Bogor Regency are described in stages. The results of Non-Hierarchical Clustering are described in three ways. Furthermore, this research can be used as a basis for decision making to determine future Vocational School development strategies.

Keywords: Clustering, Hierarchical Algorithm, Non-Hierarchical K-Means Algorithm, 21st Century Skills, SMKN

Full Text:



Agung, I. (2018). Improvement of Teacher Competence and Professionalism and School Management Development in Indonesia. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(10), 1388-1396. https://doi.org/10.12691/education-6-10-8

Ariyanto, A., Nuryani, A., & Sunarsi, D. (2020). Pengaruh Store Atmosphere Dan Promosi Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Pada Alfamart BSD Tangerang Selatan. Jurnal Ekonomi Efektif, 3(1).

Ball, A., Joyce, H., and Anderson-Butcher, D. (2016). Exploring 21st Century Skills and Learning Environments for Middle School Youth. International Journal of School Social Work , 1(1), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.4148/2161-4148.1012

Effendy, A., & Sunarsi, D. (2020). Persepsi Mahasiswa Terhadap Kemampuan Dalam Mendirikan UMKM Dan Efektivitas Promosi Melalui Online Di Kota Tangerang Selatan. Jurnal Ilmiah MEA (Manajemen, Ekonomi, & Akuntansi), 4(3), 702-714. https://doi.org/10.31955/mea.vol4.iss3.pp702-714

Ermawati, R. and Wagiran (2018). Profile of Vocational Learning in the Era of Industrial Revolution 4.0 (Studies at Department of Automotive Vocational High School). Journal of Physics: Conference Series: Vol. 1273 (pp. 1-10). International Conference on Vocational Education of Mechanical and Automotive Technology. https:// doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1273/1/012015

Felestin and Triyono, M. (2015). The Implementation of Total Quality Management at Vocational High Schools in Indonesia. Research and Evaluation in Education Journal, 1(1), 13-24. https://doi.org/10.21831/reid.v1i1.4895

Haque, MG., Munawaroh, Sunarsi, D., (2020). Analysis of SMEs Culinary Marketing Strategy During Covid 19 Pancemic: A Study at “Sate Bebek Cilegon” Resto in Cilegon, Banten. International Journal of Education, Information Technology, and Others. Vol.3. Issue 2

Harususilo, Y. (2018, April 26). Ini Alasan Lulusan SMK Banyak Menganggur. Kompas.com. https://edukasi.kompas.com/read/2018/04/26/15342831/ini-alasan-lulusan-smk-banyak-menganggur (Retrieved on February 7th, 2019)

Hussin, A. (2018). Education 4.0 Made Simple: Ideas for Teaching. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 6 (3), 92-98. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.6n.3p.92

Kasmad, K., Mustakim, M., & Sunarsi, D. (2020). Increasing Community School Interest Through Service Quality, Prices and Promotion in Vocational High Schools. Journal of Educational Science and Technology (EST), 6(2).

Larose, D. (2006). Data Mining Methods and Models. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Lawitta, R., Sihaloho, L. and Arianti, J. (2017). Vocational High School in Indonesia Facing ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). Advanced in Social Science, Education and Humanities Reseacrh (ASSEHR): Vol. 158 (pp. 950-957). International Conference on Teacher Training and Education. https://doi.org/10.2991/ictte-17.2017.28

Lopez-Mayan, C. and Nicodemo, C. (2012, January). Vocational High School or Vocational College? Comparing the Transitions from School to Work [Paper presentation]. IZA Discussion Paper No 6309, Bonn, Germany

Lukiastuti, Fitri, et.al (2020). The Influence of Entrepreneur’s Personal Characteristics on SMES Performance Mediated by Entrepreneurial Orientation. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. Volume 24 - Issue 8

Maddinsyah, A., Sunarsi, D., Hermawati, R., Pranoto. (2020). Analysis of location selection effect on the user decision that influcence the success of the service business of micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME) in bandung timur region. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology. Vol. 29 No. 06

Muawiyah, D., Yamtinah, S. dan Indriyanti N. (2018). Higher Education 4.0: Assessment on Environtmental Chemistry Course in Blended Learning Design. IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Vol. 1097 (pp. 1-7).International Conference on Research, Implementation, & Education of Mathematics and Sciences. https://doi :10.1088/1742-6596/1097/1/012058

Nurdyansyah and Riananda, L. (2016). Developing ICT-Based Learning Model to Improve Learning Outcomes IPA of SD Fish Market in Sidoarjo. Jurnal Teknologi Pendidikan: Vol. 1 (pp. 929-940). Proceedings of International Research Clinic & Scientific Publications of Educational Technology. https://journal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtp/article/view/1137/781

Nurhabibah, Setiawan, A., Yanti, H., Miraj, Y., dan Yannuar (2017). Analysis of ICT Literacy Competence among Vocational High School Teachers. IOP Conferences Series: Materials Sciences and Engineering: Vol. 306 (pp. 1-7). International Conference on Innovation in Engineering and Vocational Education. https:// doi:10.1088/1757-899X/306/1/012097

Paiwithayasiritham, C. (2014). Factor Analysis of The 21st Century Learning and Innovation Skills of The Teaching Professional Students. Veridian E-Journal, 7(5), 27-35. http://www.educ.su.ac.th/images/journal/web/57-1/11.pdf

Purwanti, P., Sarwani, S., & Sunarsi, D. (2020). Pengaruh Inovasi Produk Dan Brand Awareness Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen Pada PT. Unilever Indonesia. Inovasi, 7(1), 24-31.

Purwanto, H., Fauzi, . M., Wijayanti, . R., Awwaly, . K. U. A., Jayanto, . I., Mahyuddin, ., Purwanto, . A., Fahlevi, . M., Adinugraha, H. H., Syamsudin, . R. A., Pratama, . A., Ariyanto, . N., Sunarsi, . D., Hartuti, . E. T. K. & Jasmani, . (2020) Developing Model of Halal Food Purchase Intention among Indonesian Non-Muslim Consumers: An Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Research. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11 (10), 396-407. doi:10.31838/srp.2020.10.63

Ratnasari, E. (2018, February 26). BPS: Lulusan SMK Banyak Menganggur Sepanjang 2017. cnnindonesia.com. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/gaya-hidup/20180223141505-282-278333/bps-lulusan-smk-banyak-menganggur-sepanjang-2017 (Retrieved February 7th, 2019).

Schwab, K. (2016, Januari 14). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: What It Means and How to Respond. Weforum.org. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-what-it-means-and-how-to-respond/ (Retrieved on March 3rd, 2019).

Singh, H. & Gera, M. (2015). Strategies for Development of Life Skills and global Competencies. International Journal of Scientific Research, 4(6), 760-763. https://www.doi.org/10.36106/ijsr

Suartini, T. (2019). Influence Application of Learning Model on Vocational Education Based on Quality Issurance. SAGE Open, 9(2), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019851552

Sunarsi, D., & Baharuddin, A. (2019). The Effect of Service Quality and Price Accuracy on Consumer Confidence and Implications for Sales Increase. PINISI Discretion Review, 3(2), 101-110.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed by:




Prodi Magister Manajemen Universitas Pamulang
JL. Surya Kencana No.1 Pamulang
Tangerang Selatan, Banten, 15417
Tlp/Fax: (021) 7412566
Handphone: +62 812-8376-8807
E-mail: humanisproccedings@gmail.com

Based on a work at http://openjournal.unpam.ac.id/index.php/SNH


Flag Counter

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.